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presumption 中文解釋 wordnet sense Collocation Usage
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presumptions, plural;
  1. An act or instance of taking something to be true or adopting a particular attitude toward something, esp. at the start of a chain of argument or action
    • - the presumption of guilt has changed to a presumption of innocence
  2. An idea that is taken to be true, and often used as the basis for other ideas, although it is not known for certain
    • - underlying presumptions about human nature
  3. An attitude adopted in law or as a matter of policy toward an action or proposal in the absence of acceptable reasons to the contrary
    • - the planning policy shows a general presumption in favor of development
  4. Behavior perceived as arrogant, disrespectful, and transgressing the limits of what is permitted or appropriate
    • - he lifted her off the ground and she was enraged at his presumption

  1. given: an assumption that is taken for granted
  2. (law) an inference of the truth of a fact from other facts proved or admitted or judicially noticed
  3. audacious (even arrogant) behavior that you have no right to; "he despised them for their presumptuousness"
  4. a kind of discourtesy in the form of an act of presuming; "his presumption was intolerable"
  5. In the law of evidence, a presumption of a particular fact can be made without the aid of proof in some situations. The types of presumption includes a rebuttable discretionary presumption, a rebuttable mandatory presumption, and an irrebutable or conclusive presumption. ...
  6. the act of presuming, or something presumed; the belief of something based upon reasonable evidence, or upon something known to be true; the condition upon which something is presumed; arrogant behaviour
  7. That which may be assumed without proof.
  8. a legal device to place the burden of proof or of producing evidence on one or another party to a proceeding.
  9. (Latin praesumere , "to take before", "to take for granted").
  10. An idea is reasonable or acceptable only until it is sufficiently challenged.
  11. the teaching that a person can save himself apart from God's work and/or that a person's works are not needed for salvation.
  12. The trier of fact must find the existence of the fact presumed unless and until evidence is introduced that would support the findings of its nonexistence.
  13. an attitude or belief based upon possibility or probability instead of fact; accepting something without evidence or basis in fact.
  14. A conjecture about the truth in an uncertain matter. A presumption of law is one which is determined by the law. A presumption of marriage is one which is formulated by the judge based upon judicial experience. ...
  15. An act or attitude opposed to the theological virtue of hope. Presumption can take the form of trust in self without recognizing that salvation comes from God, or of an over confidence in divine mercy.
  16. A conclusion made as to the existence or nonexistence of a fact that must be drawn from other evidence that is admitted and proven to be true. A RULE OF LAW.
  17. An assumption which is made in a legal case, of which there are three kinds:
  18. a rule of law that a judge or jury will draw a particular inference from a particular fact, or from particular evidence, unless and until the truth of such inference is disproved.
  19. In law, an observation that may reasonably inferred from a given set of facts. A presumption may be either rebuttable (as in the "Don't Ask, Don't Tell" policy regarding gays in the military) or conclusive.
  20. is explained in Treas. Reg. 301.7430-5(c)(3). If the Internal Revenue Service did not follow any applicable published guidance in an administrative proceeding commenced after July 30, 1996, the position of the Internal Revenue Service, on those issues to which the guidance applies and for all ...
  21. of advancement A presumption in trust, contract and family law which suggests that property transferred from a parent to a child, or spouse to spouse, is a gift and would defeat any presumption of a resulting trust.