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externality 中文解釋 wordnet sense Collocation Usage
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externalities, plural;
  1. A side effect or consequence of an industrial or commercial activity that affects other parties without this being reflected in the cost of the goods or services involved, such as the pollination of surrounding crops by bees kept for honey

  2. The fact of existing outside the perceiving subject

  1. outwardness: the quality or state of being outside or directed toward or relating to the outside or exterior; "the outwardness of the world"
  2. In economics, an externality (or transaction spillover) is a cost or benefit, not transmitted through prices , incurred by a party who did not agree to the action causing the cost or benefit. ...
  3. The state of being external or externalized; A thing that is external relative to something else; An impact, positive or negative, on any party not involved in a given economic transaction or act
  4. (Externalities) A cost or benefit not accounted for in the price of goods or services. Often “externality” refers to the cost of pollution and other environmental impacts.
  5. (Externalities) The spillover effects of production or consumption for which no payment is made. Externalities can be positive or negative. For example all fax users gain as new users become connected (positive); and smoke from factory chimneys (negative). ««
  6. (externalities) An externality occurs in economics when a decision (for example, to pollute the atmosphere) causes costs or benefits to individuals or groups other than the person making the decision. ...
  7. (Externalities) By-products of activities that affect the well-being of people or damage the environment, where those impacts are not reflected in market prices. The costs (or benefits) associated with externalities do not enter standard cost accounting schemes.
  8. (EXTERNALITIES) Variables affecting human welfare which are impacted by economic processes, but not calculated or recompensated in economic terms.  The generators of externalities and those benefited/impacted would be taxed or subsidized accordingly in a broadly sustainable system. ...
  9. (Externalities (to higher education)) Economic benefits of higher education to society which are not captured by the additional average pay received by graduates (the pay premium ) and so reflected in the rate of return . See Report 8 for more information.
  10. (Externalities) Costs that are not factored into ("internalized") electricity generation, such as the environmental costs of additional pollution
  11. (Externalities) One person's or firm's action can affect those of a third party separately from financial effects in the …
  12. (Externalities) The consequences or impacts of resource decisions that are not directly accounted for in the price paid for the resource.
  13. (Externalities) The genuine, but unpaid for financial, physical and environmental impacts of a business or a government activity (e.g. pesticide use). ...
  14. (Externalities) The principle that economies outside a property have a positive effect on its value while diseconomies outside a property have a negative effect upon its value.
  15. (Externalities) costs and benefits not generally accounted for by markets and quantifiable financial mechanisms Engagement - the process of interacting with organizations and businesses to increase democracy and encourage behavioural change.
  16. (Externalities) uncompensated side effects of human actions.  For example, if a stream is polluted by runoff from agricultural land, the people downstream experience a negative externality.
  17. (externalities) In resource planning, the value of what is lost or damaged when power generation adversely affects the environment.
  18. (externalities) [Economics] A transaction involves a buyer and a seller and often has little or no measurable effect on other parties. ...
  19. (externalities) costs or benefits of an action that are not considered a direct part of an economic transaction. For example, a utility buys coal and generators, builds and maintains a plant, hires people to do the work, then sells the resulting product: electricity. ...
  20. GDP ignores externalities or economic bads such as damage to the environment. By counting goods which increase utility but not deducting bads or accounting for the negative effects of higher production, such as more pollution, GDP is overstating economic welfare. ...
  21. The environmental, social, and economic impacts of producing a good or service that are not directly reflected in the market price of the good or service.
  22. Term used mainly in economics to refer to the break-down of markets due to external influences. In open source software, network externalities have been used to refer to code importing, replication, tailoring or code sharing between projects which can lead to superlinear functional growth.
  23. Economic cost not normally taken into account in markets or in decisions by market players.
  24. the extent to which the results of the assessment can be generalized to a similar context.
  25. The external cost imposed on others from private or individual actions that are not taken into account by individuals.